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Journal of Soil and Water Conservation

May 2016 Vol 1(1), pp. 001-009

Copyright 2016 Unified Journals

Original Research Article

Controlling soil surface crust formation using Nanosized sulfonated polyaniline

A.M. Zein El-Din1Hammed H. A. M. Hassan,2M.M. Abou El-Kheir1 and R.M. Youssef1*

1Department of Agriculture Engineering and Bio Systems, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt.

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Corresponding Author's Email: rasha_youssef@yahoo.com

Accepted 25 April, 2016


Abstract


Agricultural expansion and desert reclamation are considered the most important projects influencing the development agenda in Egypt. Most of the new reclaimed lands are located in arid and semi-arid regions, which suffer from crusting. This phenomenon is a process by which a compact layer or thin mantle of consolidated soil particles is formed at the soil surface. They result in water loss, soil erosion, seedling emergence difficulties and water infiltration problems into the soil. Crust formation leads to deterioration in soil characteristics and productivity. Nanotechnology is a new area of research with the potential to contribute to various areas of scientific investigation, including natural resources and soil conservation. The objectives of this research were selection and synthesis of suitable nanomaterial for use as a soil conditioner for controlling soil surface crust formation. Additionally, this study aimed to determining of optimum application rate and examining the toxicity of this material on Earthworm and mice. The result showed appropriate use of Sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI), for the first time, as a soil conditioner for controlling soil surface crust formation from the use of polyaniline (PANI). The optimum rate of (SPANI) was 0.678%, which gave the lowest values of the soil resistance to penetration. The germination rate of corn after 5 days of sowing was 100% for SPANI treatment, but in the case of control treatment the same percentage was achieved after 12 days from sowing. This means that the rate of occurrence was 20% for SPANI compared with control treatment which was11% .On the other hand, using the proposed rate of SPANI provided a germination rate of wheat by 60% and increased the rate of occurrence to 22.8% compared to the control treatment which was 13.5%. The toxicity test showed that the concentration of a substance that is (LC50) lethal to 50% of the earthworm was 1.13%. This indicates that using sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI) at the optimum rate would be safe. The oral LD50 of SPANI was 206.64 mg / kg body weight of mouse which classified as moderately toxic.

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Cite This Article

A.M. Zein El-Din, Hammed H. A. M. Hassan, M.M. Abou El-Kheir and R.M. Youssef. Controlling soil surface crust formation using Nanosized sulfonated polyaniline. 1(1) 2016 pp. 001-009.




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